Feast of Trumpets - Tishri 1-2

DETERMINING THE START OF THE FEAST OF TRUMPETS

The following quote is taken from:

The Temple: Its Ministry and Services
Alfred Edersheim
Chapter 10
Festive Cycles and Arrangement of the Calendar

"The New Moon

"And this brings up yet another difficulty. The Jews calculated the month according to the phases of the moon, each month consisting of either twenty-nine or thirty days, and beginning with the appearance of the new moon. But this opened a fresh field of uncertainty. It is quite true that every one might observe for himself the appearance of a new moon. But this would again partly depend on the state of the weather. Besides, it left an authoritative declaration of the commencement of a month unsupplied. And yet not only was the first of every month to be observed as 'New Moon's Day,' but the feasts took place on the 10th, 15th, or other day of the month, which could not be accurately determined without a certain knowledge of its beginning. To supply this want the Sanhedrim sat in the 'Hall of Polished Stones' to receive the testimony of credible witnesses that they had seen the new moon. To encourage as many as possible to come forward on so important a testimony, these witnesses were handsomely entertained at the public expense. If the new moon had appeared at the commencement of the 30th day--which would correspond to our evening of the 29th, as the Jews reckoned the day from evening to evening--the Sanhedrim declared the previous month to have been one of twenty-nine days, or 'imperfect.' Immediately thereon men were sent to a signal-station on the Mount of Olives, where beacon-fires were lit and torches waved, till a kindling flame on a hill in the distance indicated that the signal had been perceived. Thus the tidings, that this was the new moon, would be carried from hill to hill, far beyond the boundaries of Palestine, to those of the dispersion, 'beyond the river.' Again, if credible witnesses had not appeared to testify to the appearance of the new moon on the evening of the 29th, the next evening, or that of the 30th, according to our reckoning, was taken as the commencement of the new month, in which case the previous month was declared to have been one of thirty days, or 'full.' It was ruled that a year should neither have less than four nor more than eight such full months of thirty days" http://philologos.org/__eb-ttms/temple10.htm#moon.

The Jews did not know whether the Feast of Tishri would start on the 30th of Elul or actually Tishri 1. It would begin on one of these two days. They also did not know at what hour the Feast of Trumpets would begin on whichever day it started. The words of Jesus thus fit well into the determining of the New Moon for the start Of Tishri 1, i.e., the Feast of Trumpets. This was extremely important because determining the right date would mean that the Ten Days of Awe and the Day of Atonement would also be celebrated on the proper day, and these were the High Holidays of Judaism: The Feast of Trumpets (Tishri 1), Day of Atonement (Toshri 10) and the Feast of Tabernacles (Tishri 15-22). Thus, Jesus may very well have been speaking of this situation when He said,

Matthew 24:35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.
36 But of THAT DAY AND HOUR knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.

Notice there is THAT day and (THAT) hour which the Lord Jesus mentioned. I speak here of the hour Jesus spoke of as falling within that day (Tishri 1). Zechariah spoke of what appears to be the same day Jesus spoke and that the Feast of Trumpets alludes to, and it is definitely a posttribulational setting, including the Battle of Armageddon when He destroys them with the brightness of His coming:

Zechariah 14:1 Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee.
2 For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.
3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle.
4 And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.
5 And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and THE LORD MY GOD SHALL COME, AND ALL THE SAINTS WITH THEE.
6 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the light shall not be clear, nor dark:
7 BUT IT SHALL BE ONE DAY WHICH SHALL BE KNOWN TO THE LORD, not day, nor night: but it shall come to pass, that at evening time it shall be light.

Notice that here Zechariah speaks of a day known only to the Lord and it is Armageddon for sure. Notice, too, that "the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with thee." This could very well be the rapture of the church when Christ comes for the saints and then continues His descent on the Feast of Trumpets with the saints.

What follows this time of the Lord's dealing with the nations and bringing Israel in His kingdom reign on earth is the Feast of Tabernacles. Thus we have the Feast of Trumpets, the Day of Atonement (Zech 12) and Tabernacles in their proper order. The day known only to the Lord and these three feasts appears to fit well as a posttribulational event:

8 And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea, and half of them toward the hinder sea: in summer and in winter shall it be.
9 And the LORD shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one LORD, and his name one.
10 All the land shall be turned as a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem: and it shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin's gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananeel unto the king's winepresses.
11 And men shall dwell in it, and there shall be no more utter destruction; but Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited.
12 And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.
13 And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, and his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour.
14 And Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem; and the wealth of all the heathen round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, and apparel, in great abundance.
15 And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as this plague.
16 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and TO KEEP THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.
17 And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain.
18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, that have no rain; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not up TO KEEP THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.
19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all nations that come not up TO KEEP THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.
20 In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD'S house shall be like the bowls before the altar.
21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness unto the LORD of hosts: and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein: and in that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts.

The Feast of Trumpets is also the day that God is acknowledged as King in the Jewish tradition, a day of remembering Him, and thus we have the scriptural statement in Revelation 11 and 19:

Revelation 11:17 Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned.

Revelation 19:16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

It is obvious that He is on earth and Lord of lords and King of kings in Zechariah.

One last verse that would possibly be appropriate for the Feast of Trumpets is Revelation 3:10, where Jesus keeps the church and Jews safe in this hour of trial and temptation:

10 Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the HOUR OF TEMPTATION, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.
11 Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown.

Ed Tarkowski