Part 5: The Second Half Of Daniel's 70th Week Continued

This is the Book of Revelation as a working scenario. The purpose is to place its verses in chronological order, continually moving verses to remove contradictions as more is learned.


These events most likely take place just before the end or at the end of the fifth trumpet, at the end of the five months of the locust plague. This section will deal with the last two seals, the last two trumpets and the seven vials:


Song of Moses...Song of the Lamb

Rev 15:1 And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvellous, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of God.
Rev 15:2 And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having the harps of God.
Rev 15:3 And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints.
Rev 15:4 Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for thou only art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy judgments are made manifest.

These are the martyrs the souls under the golden altar were told to wait for. These are they who have been killed during the tribulation and their spirits are now in heaven. God's final judgments can now begin.


Rev 11:7 And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.
Rev 11:8 And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.

The Lord God called those in Jerusalem Sodom and Gomorrah:

Isaiah 1:10 Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah.
11 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats.

Rev 11:9 And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves.
Rev 11:10 And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on the earth.

With the 144,000 being those redeemed from Israel during the tribulation, the testimony of the two witnesses comes to an end as antichrist slays them in the streets of Jerusalem. The everlasting gospel is now preached by an angel in the midst of heaven because the two witnesses have been removed.

Esther 9 echoes the exchange of gifts mentioned here. This is the feast of Purim:

19 Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.

Gundry = perhaps just before Armageddon there will be a lull, a seeming end of world upheavals, which excite men's hopes for the peace which has so long eluded them (as suggested by the 3-1/2 days of merriment in Rev. 11:7-11).

The expectation of peace may be because of the death of the two witnesses and their deeds.


Rev 14:1 And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.
Rev 14:2 And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps:
Rev 14:3 And they sung as it were a new song before the throne, and before the four beasts, and the elders: and no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth.
Rev 14:4 These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb.
Rev 14:5 And in their mouth was found no guile: for they are without fault before the throne of God.

On "the voice of harpers harping with their harps" see Rev 5:8 in Part 1.

I like what Tim Warner says of the 144,000:

Both John and James are referring to one of the Jewish Feast days. The Feast of "Firstfruits" took place on the Sunday following Passover. This occurred at the beginning of the wheat harvest. Males were required to come to Jerusalem with a token sheaf of wheat to be offered to God before they partook of their harvest. It was called "Firstfruits" because the very first bundle of wheat was given to God. When they returned home they reaped their fields for the next seven weeks. After this period of harvest, they appeared before the Lord at the Temple to give another offering to thank God for a good harvest, on the fiftieth day, the Day of Pentecost. When John calls the 144,000 of Rev. 14 the "Firstfruits" unto God and the Lamb, he is saying that they are the elect Jews who believed the Gospel when Christ came. James confirms this for us in the above verses. They were the first offering to God of the harvest of this age. The other group of 144,000 Jews are the "Pentecost" offering at the very end of the harvest. It is no coincidence that at the end of this chronological sequence Christ's coming is compared to a harvest.

In other words, this 144,000 is in heaven about to return with Christ and are either the Old Testament Jews that believed He would come and were taken to heaven with Him at His ascension, or those that believed on Him when He came the first time. These would most likely be the souls under the altar in the fifth seal.


Rev 14:6 And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people,
Rev 14:7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.


Rev 14:8 And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Jamieson, Faucett and Brown say this is said in anticipation of Babylon's fall as described in Revelation 18:2:

2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.


Rev 14:9 And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,
Rev 14:10 The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb:
Rev 14:11 And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.
Rev 14:12 Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.
Rev 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

"without mixture" = "full strength" = no alleviating circumstances (Is. 51:17; Jer. 25:15).

Here the rest of the saints are contrasted with the eternal unrest of the unbeliever. The "fire and brimstone" mentioned here is most likely the lake of fire, possibly formed when Christ returns when He comes to gather those who fled to Bozrah, or Petra, at the midpoint of Daniel's 70th week:

Isaiah 63:1 Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.
2 Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat?
3 I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment.
4 For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.

Bozrah (probably Petra according to Josephus) is where the Jews took refuge at one time at the destruction of Jerusalem, and will most likely do so again in preparation for the coming of Christ. I have read some files that say Jesus first descends in this area of Edom. I searched my Bible for scriptures on Bozrah and Edom (Idumea) and found the following. Notice the celestial phenomena of the first verse that matches the language of the sixth seal in Revelation 6 and Matthew 24 when Christ gathers, in part, the remnant of Judaism:

Isaiah 34:4 And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig tree.
5 For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment.
6 The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea.
7 And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with the bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness.
8 For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance, and the year of recompenses for the controversy of Zion.
9 And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch.
10 It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever.
11 But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out upon it the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness.
12 They shall call the nobles thereof to the kingdom, but none shall be there, and all her princes shall be nothing.
13 And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof: and it shall be an habitation of dragons, and a court for owls.
14 The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.
15 There shall the great owl make her nest, and lay, and hatch, and gather under her shadow: there shall the vultures also be gathered, every one with her mate.
16 Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read: no one of these shall fail, none shall want her mate: for my mouth it hath commanded, and his spirit it hath gathered them.
17 And he hath cast the lot for them, and his hand hath divided it unto them by line: they shall possess it for ever, from generation to generation shall they dwell therein.

If you read Revelation 18, you will see strong similarities between what happens when Jesus comes to Bozrah in Isaiah and the burning of Babylon in Revelation 18. Isaiah 34:4 places this event at the sixth seal, and verse 8 says this is the day of the Lord's vengeance:

Isaiah 34:8 For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance, and the year of recompenses for the controversy of Zion.

Part of the day of vengeance will be the settling of the controversy of Zion. I have read that God's curse and judgment will come (and came in the past) to this area because the Edomites were relatives of Jacob and they would not let Moses pass through their land on the way to the Red Sea and later stood back in support of Babylon laying seige to Jerusalem. But, the two verses that caught my eye in Isaiah 34 were these:

9 And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch.
10 It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever.

Jesus had said this is what His coming would be like:

Luke 17:29 But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all.
30 Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.

It appears to be that when Jesus comes to Bozrah, this is when the lake of fire is brought into existence since it is spoken of in Scripture as future. Read the verses again:

9 And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch.
10 It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever.

Bozrah is located at the far southeastern end of the battlefield where the nations gather against Jerusalem. But, if He goes to Bozrah first, as Isaiah 63 seems to indicate along with the celestial signs of the sixth seal, the "creation" of the lake of fire at Bozrah then makes it available to throw the false prophet and the antichrist into it:

Revelation 19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.

Ezekiel entertains this idea of brimstone falling during Armageddon:

(Ezek 38:22 KJV) And I will plead against him with pestilence and with blood; and I will rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon the many people that are with him, an overflowing rain, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone.

Looking back to the verses concerning Bozrah, if it is the actual lake of fire that "shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever" (Isaiah 34:10), then that would give a place where the following occurs:

(Rev 19:20 KJV) And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.

If considering the above at all, it must also be remembered what Jeremiah prophesied:

Isaiah 30:33 For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it.

Tophet is located in the valley of Hinnom just southeast and southwest of Jerusalem. There is also Tophet in Edom near Bozrah, but the Scriptures do not point to that one:

Jeremiah 7:32 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that it shall no more be called Tophet, nor the valley of the son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter: for they shall bury in Tophet, till there be no place.


Byssus - the pure and white linen of the saints

Rev 15:5 And after that I looked, and, behold, the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened:
Rev 15:6 And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen, and having their breasts girded with golden girdles.
Rev 15:7 And one of the four beasts gave unto the seven angels seven golden vials full of the wrath of God, who liveth for ever and ever.
Rev 15:8 And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from his power; and no man was able to enter into the temple, till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.

Echoes Lev. 16:17 - the Day of Atonement:

17 And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel.

Here we have another escalation of God's punishment of Israel to bring them to repentance.

Also take note of the saints "clothed in pure and white linen," of which Edersheim writes in Chapter 4,

The material of which the four vestments of the ordinary priest were made was 'linen,' or, more accurately, 'byssus,' the white shining cotton-stuff of Egypt. These two qualities of the byssus are specially marked as characteristic (Rev 15:6, 'clothed in pure and shining linen.'), and on them part of the symbolic meaning depended. Hence we read in Revelation 19:8, 'And to her'--the wife of the Lamb made ready--'was granted that she should be arrayed in byssus vestments, shining and pure; for the byssus vestment is the righteousness of the saints.'


Rev 16:1 And I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the seven angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth.

Gundry = it is not a point of disagreement that the Church will not suffer God's wrath; she will not (Jn. 3:36; Jn. 5:24; Rom. 5:9; Rom. 8:1; Eph. 2:3; 1 Thess. 1:10; 1 Thess. 5:9). The protection, as in the exodus from Egypt, is evident, even in the song of redemption in 15:3. The first four trumpets (8:7-12) and bowls fall successively on the earth, sea, rivers, and sun.

The bowls are severe, final and brief (quick); All seven bowls are clustered at the end and poured out immediately before and as Jesus returns. They are the last, not merely because the reach to the end, but because they are poured out at the very end (15:1). The angels do not return to the temple in heaven.

The first bowl brings further sores as did the locusts tormenting men in the fifth seal:

Rev 16:2 And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.

The sores in the first vial could complement the boils described in the plagues of Egypt:

Deuteronomy 28:27 The LORD will smite thee with the botch [sores or boils] of Egypt, and with the emerods, and with the scab, and with the itch, whereof thou canst not be healed.

Deuteronomy 28:35 The LORD shall smite thee in the knees, and in the legs, with a sore botch [sores or boils] that cannot be healed, from the sole of thy foot unto the top of thy head.

Deuteronomy 28:60 Moreover he will bring upon thee all the diseases of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of; and they shall cleave unto thee.


Rev 16:3 And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man; and every living soul died in the sea.

This bowl complements the second trumpet and seems to bring to finality that which was begun in the second trumpet:

THE SECOND TRUMPET: Rev 8:8 And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood;
Rev 8:9 And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.


Rev 16:4 And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.
Rev 16:5 And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus.
Rev 16:6 For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy.
Rev 16:7 And I heard another out of the altar say, Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.

The third bowl completments the third trumpet, bringing to finality that which was started in that trumpet:

THE THIRD TRUMPET: Rev 8:10 And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters;
Rev 8:11 And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.

Verse 7 is a response from those under the altar because their brothers have been slain like them and God's judgement has finally come.


Rev 16:8 And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire.
Rev 16:9 And men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues: and they repented not to give him glory.

As with bowls and trumpets two and three, the fourth trumpet complements the fourth bowl:

THE FOURTH TRUMPET: Rev 8:12 And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.


Rev 16:10 And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain,
Rev 16:11 And blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, and repented not of their deeds.

In the fifth bowl, the kingdom of the beast is thrown into darkness, making way for the celestial phenomena of the sixth seal and Matthew 24:29-31.


The Full Moon

Rev 6:12 And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;

The notes in the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary says of the moon in verse 12:

moon--A, B, C, and oldest versions read, "the whole moon"; the full moon; not merely the crescent moon.

This would mean that this would occur on the 14th or 15th of a month, the middle of the month. If this would be one of God's feast days, it would then fall on either Passover (Nisan 14), the first day of the feast of Unleavened Bread (Nisan 15), Second or Little Passover (Iyyar 15), Tabernacles (Tishri 15), or the Feast of Purim (Adar 14th or 15th).

Earthquake = it is a single, great earthquake which is the precursor of the end of the world. Amos 8:8 describes this earthquake as well the reason for it: the breaking of the 3rd seal, with the basket of figs representing the remnant (Amos 8:2) and the reaction to the coming of the Lord in verse 3:

Amos 8:4-9 (KJV) Hear this, O ye that swallow up the needy, even to make the poor of the land to fail, Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit? That we may buy the poor for silver: and the needy for a pair of shoes; yea, sell the refuse of the wheat? The Lord has worn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their works. Shall not the land tremble for this, and every one mourn that dwelleth therein? and it shall rise up wholly as a flood: and it shall be cast out and frowned, as by the flood of Egypt. And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day.

Earthquakes in Revelation:

Rev 6:13 And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.
Rev 6:14 And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
Rev 6:15 And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains;
Rev 6:16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:
Rev 6:17 For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

Hosea and Luke spoke of men crying for the hills to cover them. The high places were the holy places where men went to worship their gods; thus the reason for their cry:

Hos 10:8 (KJV) The high places of Aven, the sin of Israel, shall be destroyed: the thorn and the thistle shall come up on their altars; and they shall say to the mountains, Cover us; and to the hills, Fall on us."

Lk 23:30 (KJV) Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, cover us. For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?

This verse seems to be based on Joel 2:11 and Nah. 1:6:

Joel 2:11 (KJV) And the Lord shall utter his voice before his army, for his camp is very great: for he is strong that executeth his word: for the day of the Lord us great and very terrible: and who can abide it?

Nah 1:6 (KJV) Who can stand before his indignation? and who can abide in the fierceness of his anger? his fury is poured out like fire, and the rocks are thrown down by him.

The first four bowls bring God's judgement on the rivers and such, but these are a prelude to sixth seal, which is now fulfilled. This seal shakes the whole earth and God is seen about to come or is coming in His wrath.

Bob Gundry, in "The Church and The Tribulation," writes,

"The distress of the first 5 seals are common to our era. Under the 6th seal, wrath is mentioned. Rather an ingressive or a dramatic aorist tense portrays the wrath as starting or about to strike. The sixth seal brings us to the end of the tribulation. This is the final catastrophe of judgement when Christ returns, for the Lamb is just about to strike the wicked who are trying to hide (vs 12-17). The wrath could not yet have actually fallen because men are still trying to hide from it. Rather, the wrath is at the inception of breaking forth or on the verge of doing so: "has just arrived" or "is here." The phenomena are those which Jesus said would occur immediately after the tribulation at His return. If the sixth seal brings us to the end of the tribulation, the seventh seal must deal with the second coming itself."


Rev 9:13 And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God,
Rev 9:14 Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.

This plague seems in some way connected with the prayers of the faithful in 8:3,4, and the angel is called to take an active part in what is happening.

Rev 9:15 And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.
Rev 9:16 And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand: and I heard the number of them.
Rev 9:17 And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and brimstone: and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths issued fire and smoke and brimstone.

Unger = Armies are those of the spirit world as shown by the scriptures (cf 2 Kgs. 2:11; 6:13-17; Rev. 12:7; 19:11-16). Others feel the event of Dan. 11:44 is refered to here. Could it be a combining of this world and the demonic?

Rev 9:18 By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.
Rev 9:19 For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: for their tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do hurt.
Rev 9:20 And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:
Rev 9:21 Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts.

The following verses echo verse 20 above:

Daniel 5:4 They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone. . . .
23 But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified:


Rev 16:12 And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.

Unger = Euphrates is 1,780 miles long, largest stream in western Asia; it formed the eastern boundry of the Roman empire and is stipulated as the eastern boundry of enlarged Palestine. Palestine (Gen. 15:18). It was a natural barrier in antiquity to invading armies from the east. When the Lord gathers the host for Armageddon or when He gathers Israel back into the kingdom, it shall no longer be a barrier (Is. 11:15-16). The kings from the east are the rulers of powers east of the Euphrates.

Rev 16:13 And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.
Rev 16:14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.
Rev 16:15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.
Rev 16:16 And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.

This is an arrival at Armageddon. Armageddon is a noted place of other decisive battles in Israel's history (Judges 5:19; 2 Kgs. 9:27; 2 Chr. 35:22). Symbolizes the place of slaughter in the final age-end battle and the gathering of the nations. Known as the Valley of Jehosophat (Joel 3:2,12). Also called the Valley of Jezreel.


Rev 18:1 And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory.
Rev 18:2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
Rev 18:3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.
Rev 18:4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.
Rev 18:5 For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.
Rev 18:6 Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.
Rev 18:7 How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.
Rev 18:8 Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her.
Rev 18:9 And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,
Rev 18:10 Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come.
Rev 18:11 And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more:
Rev 18:12 The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble,
Rev 18:13 And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.
Rev 18:14 And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.
Rev 18:15 The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing,
Rev 18:16 And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls!
Rev 18:17 For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,
Rev 18:18 And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What city is like unto this great city!
Rev 18:19 And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.Rev 18:20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her.
Rev 18:21 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.
Rev 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
Rev 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
Rev 18:24 And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.

The Seven Trumpets And Babylon's Fall

I am not totally sure this would apply, but it seems appropriate. Commenting on "the great day of the feast," meaning the seventh day of Tabernacles, Edersheim writes,

"The Daily Circuit of the Altar

"A similar symbolism was expressed by another ceremony which took place at the close, not of the daily, but of the festive sacrifices. On every one of the seven days the priests formed in procession, and made the circuit of the altar, singing: 'O then, now work salvation, Jehovah! O Jehovah, give prosperity'! (Psa 118:25). But on the seventh, 'that great day of the feast,' they made the circuit of the altar seven times, remembering how the walls of Jericho had fallen in similar circumstances, and anticipating how, by the direct interposition of God, the walls of heathenism would fall before Jehovah, and the land lie open for His people to go in and possess it."

This could well prefigure the blowing of the seven trumpets in Revelation with the expectant fall of Babylon, itself prefigured by Jericho. What follows Revelation and the fall of Babylon is the invitation to the Marriage Supper of the Lamb, also taking place during the Feast of Tabernacles.

If Jerusalem turns out to be the Woman on the Beast in Revelation 18, the first part of verse 23, "And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee," becomes significant. In "The Ceremonies in the Court of the Women" section about the Feast of Tabernacles in Chapter 14 of his book, he writes,

"At the close of the first day of the feast the worshippers descended to the Court of the Women, where great preparations had been made. Four golden candelabras were there, each with four golden bowls, and against them rested four ladders; and four youths of priestly descent held, each a pitcher of oil, capable of holding one hundred and twenty log, from which they filled each bowl. The old, worn breeches and girdles of the priests served for wicks to these lamps. There was not a court in Jerusalem that was not lit up by the light of 'the house of water-pouring.' The 'Chassidim' and 'the men of Deed' danced before the people with flaming torches in their hands, and sang before them hymns and songs of praise; and the Levites, with harps, and lutes, and cymbals, and trumpets, and instruments of music without number, stood upon the fifteen steps which led down from the Court of Israel to that of the Women, according to the number of the fifteen Songs of Degrees in the Book of Psalms. They stood with their instruments of music, and sang hymns. Two priests, with trumpets in their hands, were at the upper gate (that of Nicanor), which led from the Court of Israel to that of the Women. At cock-crowing they drew a threefold blast. As they reached the tenth step, they drew another threefold blast; as they entered the court itself, they drew yet another threefold blast; and so they blew as they advanced, till they reached the gate which opens upon the east (the Beautiful Gate). As they came to the eastern gate, they turned round towards the west (to face the Holy Place), and said: 'Our fathers who were in this place, they turned their back upon the Sanctuary of Jehovah, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped towards the rising sun; but as for us, our eyes are towards the Lord.' . . .

In discussing the "Significance of the Illumination," Edersheim writes,
"It seems clear that this illumination of the Temple was regarded as forming part of, and having the same symbolical meaning as, 'the pouring out of water.' The light shining out of the Temple into the darkness around, and lighting up every court in Jerusalem, must have been intended as a symbol not only of the Shechinah which once filled the Temple, but of that 'great light' which 'the people that walked in darkness' were to see, and which was to shine 'upon them that dwell in the land of the shadow of death' (Isa 9:2). May it not be, that such prophecies as Isaiah 9 and 60 were connected with this symbolism? At any rate, it seems most probable that Jesus had referred to this ceremony in the words spoken by Him in the Temple at that very Feast of Tabernacles: 'I am the light of the world; he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life' (John 8:12)."

Important to these last thoughts is that verse 23 says, "And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee," while we read in Revelation 21:

Rev 21:23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.
Rev 21:24 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.
Rev 21:25 And the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day: for there shall be no night there.


Rev 8:1 And when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour.

Silence in Heaven This information in following can be located in "The Temple: Its Ministry and Services by Alfred Edersheim, Chapter 8: The Morning and the Evening Sacrifice":

"The incensing priest and his assistance now approached first the altar of burnt-offering. One filled with incense a golden censer held in a silver vessel, while another placed in a golden bowl burning coals from the altar. As they passed from the court into the Holy Place, they struck a large instrument (called the 'Magrephah'), at sound of which the priests hastened from all parts to worship, and the Levites to occupy their places in the service of song; while the chief of the 'stationary men' ranged at the Gate of Nicanor such of the people as were to be purified that day. Slowly the incensing priest and his assistants ascended the steps to the Holy Place, preceded by the two priests who had formerly dressed the altar and the candlestick, and who now removed the vessels they had left behind, and, worshipping, withdrew. Next, one of the assistants reverently spread the coals on the golden altar; the other arranged the incense; and then the chief officiating priest was left alone within the Holy Place, to await the signal of the president before burning the incense. It was probably while thus expectant that the angel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias. As the president gave the word of command, which marked that 'the time of incense had come,' 'the whole multitude of the people without' withdrew from the inner court, and fell down before the Lord, spreading their hands in silent prayer.

"It is this most solemn period, when throughout the vast Temple buildings deep silence rested on the worshipping multitude, while within the sanctuary itself the priest laid the incense on the golden altar, and the cloud of 'odours' (Rev 5:8) rose up before the Lord, which serves as the image of heavenly things in this description (Rev 8:1,3,4): 'and when He had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour...And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense, which came with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out of the angel's hand'" (The Temple: Its Ministry and Services by Alfred Edersheim Chapter 8: The Morning and the Evening Sacrifice).

"The half hour's silence contrasts with the previous jubilant songs of the great multitude, taken up by the angels (Re 7:9-11)...

"In the Jewish temple, musical instruments and singing resounded during the whole time of the offering of the sacrifices, which formed the first part of the service. But at the offering of incense, solemn silence was kept ("My soul waiteth upon God," Ps 62:1; "is silent," Margin; Ps 65:1, Margin), the people praying secretly all the time. The half-hour stillness implies, too, the earnest adoring expectation with which the blessed spirits and the angels await the succeeding unfolding of God's judgments. A short space is implied; for even an hour is so used (Re 17:12 18:10,19) (Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (1871)).

(Hab 2:20) "But the LORD is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him."

"Silence is a sign of reverent submission to Godís judgments."

(Zec 2:13) "Be silent, O all flesh, before the LORD: for he is raised up out of his holy habitation."

"This is a command both to the Gentiles, who thought they could do anything they wanted by their own power, and to the unbelieving Jews, who did not believe that God could do anything. Their silence would show that they were in awe of God as he worked on behalf of his people. God is coming out of heaven to judge the evildoers who had oppressed his people, before he takes up residence in Jerusalem. While he is in heaven, he is unseen and "silent," and the heathen can speak out against him and can oppress his people. When he comes in power as a judge of the earth, no one will be able to stand before him. He will not be silent or unseen; and all mankind will have to "be silent" when they see what he does" (New Commentary on the Whole Bible: Old Testament).

"If you want someone to be quiet, if you want them to listen, you raise your finger to your lips and say "shh!" This sound of air flowing over the lips is the universal sign to be still, to be quiet. The English word "hush" is connected with this sound. Strikingly, the same sound appears in the name of our month -- Cheshvan Oct-Nov. The root of the word Cheshvan is chash -- which in Hebrew means quiet. The very name of the month commands us to be still, to be quiet. What is this stillness that is Cheshvan? "It is two months since the beginning of Elul. The shofar blast which begins the month of Elul signals the onset of the gathering storm. A cataclysm is about to be unleashed. And on Rosh Hashana, the entire world stands at attention in front of the Master" (SEASONS of the MOON (mailing list) - "The Jewish Year seen through its months" Rabbi Yaakov Asher Sinclair

There are similarities between the 7th seal, trumpet, and bowl. In each we read of thunder, voices, lightning, earthquake and divine wrath. Some think the angel mentioned here is Christ.


Christ proclaimed King at the 7th Trumpet

Rev 11:15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.
Rev 11:16 And the four and twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces, and worshipped God,
Rev 11:17 Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned.
Rev 11:18 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.
Rev 11:19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

Gundry = The opening of the temple and the revealing of the ark denote the goal of the covenant has been reached. The kingdom in its full manifestation is now fully realized. The mystery of God (10:5-7) is now finished. It is clear therefore that both the 7th seal and 7th trumpet have to do with the advent of Christ at the close of the trib. The similarities between the 7th seal, trumpet and bowl also favor the view that they all relate to the end. In each is thunder, voices, lightning, earthquake and divine wrath.

"ark of the covenant" = God's faithfulness to the promises and the covenants (Rom. 9:4,5). All covenants are consumated at the second coming and the bowls poured out.

According to what Ralph Edersheim writes, these verses would refer to the Feast of Trumpets:

The Blowing of Trumpets

In the law of God only these two things are enjoined in the observance of the 'New Moon'--the 'blowing of trumpets' (Num 10:10) and special festive sacrifices (Num 28:11-15). Of old the 'blowing of trumpets' had been the signal for Israel's host on their march through the wilderness, as it afterwards summoned them to warfare, and proclaimed or marked days of public rejoicing, and feasts, as well as the 'beginning of their months' (Num 10:1-10). The object of it is expressly stated to have been 'for a memorial,' that they might 'be remembered before Jehovah,' it being specially added: 'I am Jehovah your God.' It was, so to speak, the host of God assembled, waiting for their Leader; the people of God united to proclaim their King. At the blast of the priests' trumpets they ranged themselves, as it were, under His banner and before His throne, and this symbolical confession and proclamation of Him as 'Jehovah their God,' brought them before Him to be 'remembered' and 'saved.' And so every season of 'blowing the trumpets,' whether at New Moons, at the Feast of Trumpets or New Year's Day, at other festivals, in the Sabbatical and Year of Jubilee, or in the time of war, was a public acknowledgment of Jehovah as King. Accordingly we find the same symbols adopted in the figurative language of the New Testament. As of old the sound of the trumpet summoned the congregation before the Lord at the door of the Tabernacle, so 'His elect' shall be summoned by the sound of the trumpet in the day of Christ's coming (Matt 24:31), and not only the living, but those also who had 'slept' (1 Cor 15:52)--'the dead in Christ' (1 Thess 4:16). Similarly, the heavenly hosts are marshalled to the war of successive judgments (Rev 8:2; 10:7), till, as 'the seventh angel sounded,' Christ is proclaimed King Universal: 'The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of His Christ, and He shall reign for ever and ever' (Rev 11:15).

John A. Bent wrote in his book, "Signs in the Heavens,"

"Five days after Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year, comes Sukkoth, a happy harvest festival that the Bible names the Feast of Booths. It is the Jewish Thanksgiving, celebrated in Israel with renewed importance and joy. Among its many traditions - such as the building of the sukkah, a booth of twigs decorated with fruit and flowers, is that of Hoshana Rabba, the seventh day of Sukkoth. At midnight, it is said, the skies open, and any wish made then will undoubtedly come true!"

"...the wish associated with this day is the desire or a prayer to be saved."

"Hoshana Rabba is the seventh day of the seventh feast of the Jewish religious calendar. It means the 'Day of Great Salvation" or 'Day of the Great Hosanna'" (pgs 324-325).


Rev 19:11 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.
Rev 19:12 His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself.
Rev 19:13 And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.


Rev 14:14 And I looked, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle.
Rev 14:15 And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle, and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe.
Rev 14:16 And he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped.

"cloud" = divine presence (Rev. 10:1; Ezk. 10:4; Matt. 17:5; 24:30).

14:14-20 = two harvests are reaped. The first harvest (vs.14-16) is by one "like a son of man" on whose head rests a golden crown. This harvest is best taken as symbolic of the rapture. He has authority as the son of man to execute judgements (Jn. 5:27) and the picture portrayed in Matt. 24:30 is evident. The white cloud on which the reaper sits corresponds to those in Matt. 24:30; Acts 1:9-11; 1 Thess. 4:17. The crown also points to the Lord (Rev. 19:12). He gathers the harvest to Himself. This reaping follows the beatitude "Blessed are those who die in the Lord (14:13). The conjunction with Armageddon (v. 20) makes the rapture a post-trib event.


Rev 11:11 And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.
Rev 11:12 And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.

This is echoed in 2 Kings 2:

11 And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.

The raising of the two witnesses in Rev. 11:11,12 may coincide with and be included in the postribulational resurrection.

Rev 11:13 And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.
Rev 11:14 The second woe is past; and, behold, the third woe cometh quickly.


Rev 14:17 And another angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle.
Rev 14:18 And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe.

Gundry = 14:17-20 brings us to Armageddon.


The Marriage Supper and the Hallel

Rev 19:1 And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:
Rev 19:2 For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.
Rev 19:3 And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.
Rev 19:4 And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.
Rev 19:5 And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.
Rev 19:6 And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.
Rev 19:7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.

The marriage supper of the Lamb = See Is. 49:18; Is. 61:10; 62:5; Hosea 2:19,20 shows Israel is part of the bride(?). Gundry (?) = The action of the aorist may be ingressive or dramatic, denoting the inauguration or immediacy of the supper. If this is the meaning, the marriage supper will occur immediately upon Christ's descent.

Mathematical calculations whether the judgement of Christians and the marriage supper could take place during the descent of Christ are altogether unneccsary, if not ludicrous. Bridegroom and the bride = Jn. 3:29; Rom. 7:4; 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-33; Rev. 19:7-8; 22:1-77.

Rev 19:8 And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.
Rev 19:9 And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.
Rev 19:10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

The crisis of Armageddon coming immediately after the trib: Joel 2:32-3:1,16b,21; Amos 5:15,18-20; Obadiah vs. 15,17; Zeph. 2:3; 3:11,16; Zech. 14.

Gundry = Indications are strong that the conversion of those Jews who will form the nucleus of the restored Davidic kingdom will take place suddenly at Jesus' return following the trib. The iniquity of the land will be removed "in one day" when the "Branch" comes forth (Zech. 3:8,9).

Nationwide repentence will take place as the Lord descends to deliver Jerusalem from her enemies, for the families of beseiged Israel will not be able to mourn in repentence throughout the land until the Messiah has come and smitten the invaders (Zech. 12:1-14:8). The rod will purify Israel when He comes to His temple (Mal. 3:1-5). The messenger of the new covenant is Jesus Christ. Judgement and tribulation for Israel precede cleansing and deliverance (Jer. 30:7-11).

"The time of Jacob's distress" = the tribulation. "that day" = the day of the Lord.PIs. 59:20; Rom. 11:26,27).


It appears that Jesus did not drink the fourth cup of Passover, "the cup of completion," stating that His Passover would be fulfilled in the kingdom of God:

Luke 22:15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
Luke 22:16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

He had told Israel:

Luke 13:35 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate: and verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

By the words, "Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord," He was speaking of Tabernacles, the time in which His Passover would be fulfilled. The sacrifices of the Old Testament were fulfilled at Calvary, but there is much that has not been fulfilled, namely, the coming of God's wrath at the midnight hour and the leading out of those who are His. Edersheim brings together the Passover ceremony in the temple and the words of the celebration of Tabernacles (the Suppper of the Lamb) in Chapter 11 of his book:

While the Saviour still tarried with the other disciples outside the city, Peter and John were completing their preparations. They followed the motley crowd, all leading their sacrificial lambs up the Temple-mount. Here they were grouped into three divisions. Already the evening sacrifice had been offered. Ordinarily it was slain at 2:30 p.m., and offered at about 3:30. But on the eve of the Passover, as we have seen, it was killed an hour earlier; and if the 14th of Nisan fell on a Friday--or rather from Thursday at eve to Friday at eve--two `63 hours earlier, so as to avoid any needless breach of the Sabbath. On the occasion to which we refer the evening sacrifice had been slain at 1:30, and offered at 2:30. But before the incense was burned or the lamps were trimmed, the Paschal sacrifice had to be offered.

* According to the Talmud, 'the daily (evening) sacrifice precedes that of the Paschal lamb; the Paschal lamb the burning of the incense, the incense the trimming of the lamps' (for the night).

It was done on this wise:--The First of the three festive divisions, with their Paschal lambs, was admitted within the Court of the Priests. Each division must consist of not less than thirty persons (3 x 10, the symbolical number of the Divine and of completeness). Immediately the massive gates were closed behind them. The priests drew a threefold blast from their silver trumpets when the Passover was slain. Altogether the scene was most impressive. All along the Court up to the altar of burnt-offering priests stood in two rows, the one holding golden, the other silver bowls. In these the blood of the Paschal lambs, which each Israelite slew for himself (as representative of his company at the Paschal Supper), was caught up by a priest, who handed it to his colleague, receiving back an empty bowl, and so the bowls with the blood were passed up to the priest at the altar, who jerked it in one jet at the base of the altar. While this was going on, a most solemn 'hymn' of praise was raised, the Levites leading in song, and the offerers either repeating after them or merely responding. Every first line of a Psalm was repeated by the people, while to each of the others they responded by a 'Hallelujah,' or 'Praise ye the Lord.' This service of song consisted of the so-called 'Hallel,' which comprised Psalms 113 to 118. Thus--

The Levites began: 'Hallelu Jah' (Praise ye the Lord).
The people repeated: 'Hallelu Jah.'
The Levites: 'Praise (Hallelu), O ye servants of Jehovah.'
The people responded: 'Hallelu Jah.'
The Levites: 'Praise (Hallelu) the name of Jehovah.'
The people responded: 'Hallelu Jah.'

Similarly, when Psalm 113 had been finished--Psalm 114:

The Levites: 'When Israel went out of Egypt.'
The people repeated: 'When Israel went out of Egypt.
The Levites: 'The house of Jacob from a people of strange language.'
The people responded: 'Hallelu Jah.'
And in the same manner, repeating each first line and responding at the rest, till they came to Psalm 118, when, besides the first, these three lines were also repeated by the people (vv 25, 26):

'Save now, I beseech Thee, Jehovah.'
'O Jehovah, I beseech Thee, send now prosperity'; and
'Blessed be He that cometh in the name of Jehovah.'

May it not be that to this solemn and impressive 'hymn' corresponds the Alleluia song of the redeemed Church in heaven, as described in Revelation 19:1, 3, 4, 6?

The fourth cup was not to be drunk until the Lord drinks it with His own in the kingdom of God, namely at the time of the Supper of the Lamb. Here is some research I had done a few years ago with the help of messianic researchers. The following is the result of research sent to me by Peter Michas:


The first two cups of the Passover meal were drunk as a REMEMBRANCE of Israel's past deliverance from Egypt, a deliverance that was celebrated in Tabernacles. We can see the oneness of Tabernacles with the Passover meal in this remembrance.

Israel's deliverance from Egypt is an established fact of her history. The Church of today had no part in the events that took place in Egypt, and to apply them to the Church (the "New" Israel) through replacement theology is to "unfulfill" that which God has fulfilled. The allegorizing Egypt as today's world, and of the Church as Israel celebrating Tabernacles in which it will fulfill its destiny, is totally outside the bounds of Scripture. The second cup of Passover is a remembrance, not a "new revelation" given to the Church today. This second cup is a "cup of the past" and must always remain so.


The third cup of the Passover meal is called the Cup of Redemption, after the promise "and I will redeem you." The fourth cup is called the Cup of Praise. When I communicated with messianic believers about the Passover, I was surprised to learn that Jesus did not drink the third cup at the Last Supper, but instead gave it to his disciples and instructed them to drink it in remembrance of Him:

27 Then he took the cup (third cup), gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, 'Drink from it, all of you. 28 This is the blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29 I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until I drink it (fourth cup) anew with you in my Father's kingdom.' 30 After the third cup When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives (Matthew 26).

What we must not miss here is that neither Jesus nor His disciples drank of the fourth cup, the Cup of Praise. Why? According to a messianic researcher,

"If we understand the context of the Passover and the analogy of the . . . third cup . . . it was not drunk by Yeshuah Jesus. When did he drink of it? After the third cup they sang the Hallel. Yeshuah went to the garden. . . "'My Father, if thou art willing, remove this cup from me; nevertheless, not my will but thine be done'" (Luke 22:42). So he 'drank a cup' here. 'Shall I not drink the cup which the Father has given me?' (John 18:11). "'And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling upon the ground' (third cup)" (Luke 22:44).

So the seder was truncated, cut short, and was lived out outside the upper room. Our researcher continues, "The seder Passover was continuing on into the real world. So the ritual meal opened up into the horror of the then present age. . . . He was in the time of his third cup. The last words of the Passover meal were spoken from the cross: "It is finished!"

"After the third cup comes the rest of the Hallel, Ps. 115-118 which they most likely sung as they went to the garden. . . . The fourth cup was never drunk: 1) not by Yeshuah; 2) perhaps not by the disciples either.

"The Hallel concludes with Psalm 118: the Great Hallel. Here the transition from the present to the messianic future finds its completion" (Notes, Messianic researcher).

The Great Hallel, Psalm 118, was usually sung at the festivals of BOTH Passover and Tabernacles. It is important to mention verse 26 here:

26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. From the house of the Lord we bless you.

Of this verse, another researcher says,

"The most important thing to note is that it is only on a few festive occasions during the course of the year when the words, 'Blessed is He who comes in the Name of the Lord' are spoken. Near the end of His ministry, Jesus cried out to the once holy city, 'O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you . . . You will not see me again until you say, "Blessed is He who comes in the Name of the Lord" (Matthew 23:39). By this He directly pointed them to His coming reign as King at the time of Succot (Tabernacles). So He implied that He would be revealed as King and begin His reign, also fulfilling Tabernacles, at the appointed time. This would be a very good reason why, beginning with the thousand year reign of Christ, we would celebrate only Tabernacles. All peoples will be required to come to Jerusalem at this time of year (Zech. chapters 12 thru 14 - a must read!)."

So during His celebration of the Passover just before His crucifixion, Jesus pointed in two ways to the true celebration of Tabernacles at His return: 1) quoting Psalm 118:26, and 2) leaving the fourth cup untouched on the Passover table as He left to go to the garden.


Rev 19:14 And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.
Rev 19:15 And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.
Rev 19:16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

The armies of heaven will follow Christ during His descent. Some have identified these armies as angelic hosts. However, the white linen worn by the armies has been ascribed to the saints a few verses earlier. It is more matural then to assume the saints are in view here, too.


Rev 16:17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done.
Rev 16:18 And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great.
Rev 16:19 And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.

Gundry = The seventh bowl will reach to the very end ("it is done") and has to do with Babylon, out of which God's people have been called (also called out of other nations) "that you may not receive of her plagues, 18:4).

Rev 16:20 And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.
Rev 16:21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

The second half of verse 19 - and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath - does not imply an eighth cup of wrath, for this is the last one. This half of the verse is in part the reason for the seventh bowl.


Rev 14:19 And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God.
Rev 14:20 And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs.


Rev 19:17 And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;
Rev 19:18 That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great.
Rev 19:19 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.
Rev 19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
Rev 19:21 And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.